Future Millennial Electrical Engineering Student Skills Needed for Career Development in Industry 4.0 by Implementing Social Approach Analysis

Kristianto Vincensius Nugroho
Universitas Kristen Maranatha - Indonesia

Abstract—a new generations of engineers emerged along with a new era of industry nowadays. Industry 4.0 and millennials engineers are the new terms emerged in these very minutes. This new era of industry, has different requirements, unique characteristics, and effects for its engineers. Millennials engineers also has their unique characteristics and different views of how they work in the future. However, they must prepared themselves to work and develop their career in Industry 4.0 environment. This paper will discuss additional skills (management and entrepreneur skills plus some values) in addition to technical skills that needed to be learnt and schooled by millennials engineers. Additional skills that will be discussed also counterbalance the negative effect from millennials engineers and Industry 4.0 themselves, i.e. Industry 4.0 drives its engineers nowadays to lose their sense of humanity through utilization of advanced technology. This matter is very important in order to bridge out between millennials engineers, Industry, and the society they served. The emersion of this new type of industry and new generations of engineers generates a challenge that needs to be resolved for the good of all parties.

Keywords — Industry 4.0, Millennials Electrical Engineers, Social Approach, Skills Development, Career Development

I. Introduction

New generations of engineers emerged concurrently with a new era of Industry. In 2020, 35% (over a third of global workforce) of engineers in Industry 4.0 are millennials generations and it is predicted that this numbers will continue to increase [1]. These two groups (Industry 4.0 and millennials engineers) have their own unique characteristics, demands / requirements, and effects, although their demands are similar to each other. As for the industry nowadays, it become an important component in some country’s economic, i.e. Germany, China, United States of America, etc. Since the first Industrial Revolution back in the 1760-s when steam engines were introduced, industry have experienced some major industrial revolution. Throughout history, there have been at least four major industrial revolution, as given as follows [2, 3]:

  • Industry 1.0

The utilization of steam engine in mechanical work based on the daily basis of the Industry 1.0. Many industries has been deeply affected by the first industrial revolution, especially textiles, iron, railroads (transportation), and coal.

  • Industry 2.0

After mechanization using steam engine, industries faced with a new type of revolution, which are the expansion of electricity, petroleum, and steel of industries. This electrification is leading to new type of production in production floor, which is the mass production and working shifts.

  • Industry 3.0

Along with development of electricity, it developed other technologies such as light bulb, power grid, electronics, computers, etc. In this revolution, the factories become smarter with the introduction of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), which replaced electrical-based and mechanical production machines.

  • Industry 4.0

The latest version of Industrial Revolution “Industry 4.0” introduced by the German Government in 2011. This term was represent the title of “Intelligent Production” of “Fully Computerized Manufacturing”.

Each industrial revolution issued new type of challenges and requirement for its engineers. Since each revolution developed new technologies and pushing the boundaries of the technologies itself, it pushes also the boundaries of skills needed by its engineers. Engineering students demanded to improve their skills in order to counterbalance the requirement demanded by Industry 4.0, negative effects produced by Industry 4.0, and to fill in the gaps between skilled worker in Industry 4.0 and the graduates.

In 2017, 43% of employers in 25 developed countries cannot find enough skilled entry-level workers but 79% of students went into higher education to improve job opportunities [4]. This statistics showed that most of the millennials students are not qualified to join the Industry 4.0 environment. However, 93% millennials engineers in the world see ongoing skills development as an important part of their future careers and they would pay for it personally and give up their own time to do it [1].

A change is needed in terms of skills needed for career development due to the difference of characteristics between older generations and millennials engineers and the characteristics of industry 4.0 itself with the previous industrial revolution. This paper will bridged between the requirement demanded by Industry 4.0 and current engineering students (what so-called millennials engineers) so that the students can fulfilled the requirement demanded by Industry 4.0.

This paper also will discussed necessary skills needed by electrical engineers to develop their career in industry 4.0 from a different perspective also skills needed to make engineers in the future more human. Most papers discussed necessary skills from technical skills point of view, but this paper will discussed necessary skills both from technical skills but also will emphasized in social approach of it.  Industry 4.0 nowadays-demanded not only being expert or professionals in technical skills, but also in social or management and entrepreneur’s skill.

This research paper organized as follows: Section II describes characteristics and challenges of Industry 4.0. Section III presents analysis of skills needed for Industry 4.0 consisting of technical skills (including digital skills) and management skills using social approach analysis. In addition, Section IV concludes this paper. Moreover, Section V contains references used by this paper.

II. Overview of Industry 4.0

The fourth wave of industrial revolution is happening in these very minutes. This industrial revolution focused on integration of information technology and industry [2]. There are twelve important characteristics of Industry 4.0, namely [2, 5, 10].

  • Autonomous Robots
  • Simulation
  • Horizontal and Vertical System Integration
  • Internet of Things / Keep Connected
  • Cyber Security
  • Utilization of Cloud
  • Additive Manufacturing
  • Augmented Reality
  • Big Data and Analytics
  • Young and Dynamic Competition
  • Flatter Structures
  • Open and Honest Communication

Another unique characteristic of Industry 4.0 is Customer-Centricity. Nowadays, custom-made goods are common thing in manufacturing; these trends might happen due to smart manufacturing especially regarding complex flexibility in Industry 4.0 production floor. This might happened due to utilization of autonomous robots and additive manufacturing [5].

From management and entrepreneur skills, Industry 4.0 demanded its engineers to be team players, team builders, decision makers, great professionals, role models, and business acumen [7]. Most of these demands are outside the comfort zone of engineers since it related the most with social relationship and multi disciplines. I.e. to be a business acumen, engineers must at least learnt basic economics; to be a team builders or players, engineers needed to learnt about industrial psychology, etc. [8]. In other word, engineers demanded to evolve from single disciplines professionals into multidiscipline professionals.  

However, it is necessary to look Industry 4.0 negative effect, not only the positive effect produced by Industry 4.0. Industry 4.0 produced many benefits for human, i.e. resource utilization, productivity, operational cost reduction, custom-made goods produced in the same production line, and complex flexibility [3, 5, 6]. Some of Industry 4.0 characteristics are utilization of autonomous robots and internet of things. These two characteristic leads to negative effects for its engineers.

Engineers nowadays (millennials engineers) used to rely everything they do to technology. These engineers used to be in idle state (state of mind) while doing some process or monitoring some sorts of systems (relying on the technology to do it for them). When something wrong happened or an accident occurs, engineers demanded in a split seconds to change their state of mind from idle to a ready to work state.

This split seconds change often makes engineers cannot think in the way they should be or as critical as they should. These flaws lead to misjudge or miscalculation of the action they take as the solution [9]. The other thing from too much relying on technology is, millennials engineers tends to not knowing how most machines works manually. If the technology fails and some action needed to be done manually, most of them will confused because millennials engineers used to technology since they were a little child.

Industry 4.0 also emerged a new negative sides that never been seen before, namely nowadays engineers tends to be individualistic and ignorant with the surrounding. Because of the technology, engineers can work “by him/herself” and a new paradigm emerges. This paradigm is “I can do it myself; I do not needed you to help me”. In this state, engineers started to lose their sense of humanity. Millennials engineers starts to think to replace human workers in factory floor with machines and makes them lost their jobs. Ought, engineers are present in this world to improve it to make planet earth the better place to live, not to make it worst to live as a human.

Engineers nowadays also starting to lose public speaking skills. Millennials engineers might be smarter in terms of technical skills than the previous generations of engineers, but millennials engineers skills of negotiation, public speaking, interpersonal skills, and others skills regarding social relation (soft skills) between human start to lessen. This problem occurred because as an electrical engineers, these engineers more often working with machines and robotics than working together with other human. Electrical engineers nowadays has special “relationships” with their gadgets i.e. laptops or smartphone, not with another human. Whereas in these very moment Industry demanded their engineers to master not only technical skills but also management and entrepreneur skills as mentioned before.


Departing from some negative effects of Industry 4.0 and characteristics of millennials engineers, new type of skills needs to be introduced to shape engineers nowadays and in the future more human. Besides departing from negative effects and characteristics of millennials, new type of skills needs to be introduced based on huge problems in industry at this moment, namely Skills Mismatch and Employability problem [4]. Boston Consulting Group carried out research in 2014 on 25 developed and developing countries around the world, and found that in 2020, 10 out of 25 countries will experience overall labor shortages. By 2030, this number raises to 20 out of 25 countries. This paper will emphasized on Management and Entrepreneur Skills which cover inter and intra personal skills, spiritual quotient, managerial and entrepreneurship skills.

Previously, types of skills known by public are hard and soft skill. Today, these terms of skills classification are irrelevant and needed to be adjusted. This paper will introduced a new terms for these skills. Namely Technical Skills, replacement for Hard Skills, and Management and Entrepreneurs Skills, replacement for Soft Skills. A new type of skills also will be introduced, namely Digital Skills which will be joined to Technical Skills group.

In upcoming year of 2020, from a survey conducted by World Economic Forum 2017 from nine largest industries in fifteen largest economics summarized by Airbus Global University Partner Program (AGUPP) [4], industries that already applying Industry 4.0 desired these skills and competencies in their employees or engineers. These skills and competencies are:

  • Complex Problem Solving
  • Critical Thinking
  • Creativity
  • People Management
  • Coordinating with Others
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Judgement and Decision Making
  • Service / Customer Oriented
  • Negotiation
  • Cognitive Flexibility

Those skills listed above actually classified as management and entrepreneurs skills. Industries demanded those skills and competencies to complement their engineer’s technical skills to meet the requirement of Industry 4.0. This is what makes social approach for engineers is very important and developing engineer’s management and entrepreneurs skills is very important for career development. The European  Commission’s Education, Audiovisual, and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) defines a formula for employability as “a combination of knowledge, competencies/skills, and personal attributes that make graduates more likely to gain employment and progress during their career” [22].

As an analogy, there is a term to simply skills needed for Industry 4.0, namely necessary skills needed for Industry 4.0 is related with Head, Heart, and Hand. Skills that will be discussed in this paper actually is a form of T-Shaped Skills. Letter “T” consists of two shape, the vertical line and the horizontal line. The vertical line represent the deepness of engineer’s knowledge itself. The horizontal line represent skills related with social life, i.e. social networking, soft skills, managerial skills, etc.

A. Technical Skills

There are not much change in these skills, because what millennials engineers learnt while they are in the universities / training are their technical skills. Engineers are experts in these skills when they graduated from the university. Technical Skills or known as Degree-Specific Skills for an electrical engineers related with the technologies used in Industry 4.0 itself, such as:

  • Internet of Things, Microcontroller, etc.
  • Robotics
  • Industrial Automation Systems
  • Advanced Controller (i.e. Industrial PC, PLC, etc.)
  • Basic Web Programming Knowledge

Those skills mentioned above are the standard skills that must be mastered by every electrical engineers. Technical skills are the most important skills for electrical engineers, because it is the area of expertise of electrical engineers. In other word, technical skills are the soul of every engineers. Engineers can be called as an engineer when they mastered at least one engineering subject.

As mentioned before, there is a new type of skills which is part of Technical Skills, which is Digital Skills. Further explanation about Digital Skills will be discussed in following section.

Digital Skills

Digital Skills are new skills developed by Industry 4.0 and the most important skills to have by each engineers in Industry 4.0 or the one that creates a factory or manufacturing system adopting Industry 4.0 concept. Digital Skills divided into two groups, Digital Behavior and Digital Skills itself [14].

Digital Behavior talks about how engineers act in the digital world. For example, how do we respond to a trend of digital world or a news, how do we “speaks/chat” online, how do we write a proper and formal email, etc. In addition, the most important behavior of all is how we differentiate between original news or information and the fake one / hoax. Besides that, the convenience of working with computer also parts of digital behavior, including preferences about types of technology used as workforce in Industry 4.0.

Digital skills addresses about how do we operates computers, using the internet to control, analyzing and using Big Data or Cloud System, and the most important is utilizing digital literacy. Digital Skills related very closely with the implementation of Internet of Things. Actually, millennials engineers does not has any problem with these digital skills since they were born and grow up in Internet era.

Digital skills also cope with digital literacy. What is meant by digital literacy is how do engineers use the internet to find reliable data for supporting him/her in seeking the truth. I.e. how do engineers select the right keyword to find specific topics, etc.

B. Management and Entrepreneur Skills (Transferable Skills)

     The most important category of skill that needs to be improved and developed by engineers in the future as a complement of Technical Skills are Management and Entrepreneur Skills, previously known as soft skills. This cluster of skills deal with various skills related to emotion quotient, i.e., intra also inter personal skills, self-management, public speaking, etc.

     As stated in the previous part, engineers nowadays demanded not only working as an engineer, but also a leader. Engineers expected to occupy important position in top management. Industry 4.0 has obtained a new type of job regarding the expansion of the engineer’s work area, i.e. sales engineers. This expansion of work area related with demand of engineers to master multidisciplines. This new job arises because the demands of engineers become leaders is tremendously high.

     Those skills will developed a new type of leadership, called Leadership 4.0. Since engineers demanded to be a team players, team builders, decision makers, great professionals, role models, and business acumen [7], mastery of Leadership 4.0 is absolute for engineers nowadays and in the future. Engineers required nowadays to capable of seeing the trends in the future, especially trends in technology development, economy, politics, and geosocial. That is why engineers needed to be great decision makers and business acumen. This skill (seeing the trends of the future) is an absolute to have by every Millennials Engineers. Millennials engineers required to have an ability to see opportunities in every phenomenon happened daily.

     Leadership 4.0 consist of few things [10]. First, Leadership 4.0 emerged because young and dynamic competition in the industry itself. Young companies (including young engineers) constantly emerged, challenging market leaders. This kind of competition demanded engineers always be ready for changes (both changes in technology or human resource management system) and become agile. In order to be always ready for changes or agile, engineers nowadays must adjust their mindset.

     Engineers needed to think creatively and out of the box all the time. What meant by creative thinking is engineers must utilize critical thinking and a paradigm “Look beyond Their Own Noses” as their daily basis framework of thinking. By thinking critically, creatively, and out of the box, engineers will find something new to solved or a special fact out of the ordinary things.

     However, make no mistakes, what is meant by thinking out of the box, does not engineers required to always think far ahead all the time for looking solutions or trends perhaps. By adopting “look beyond their own noses” paradigm, engineers should solved something close with them or their surroundings, maybe considered not important, but if they solved it, it will bring big impact. Indeed, engineers demanded to have the ability to see trends ahead, but also having an ability to see what is happening around them.

     When applied (look beyond their own noses paradigm) properly, Millennials Engineers will foster a sense of caring for each other, and this is very important. Millennials Engineers very familiar with the use of technology, which makes them solitary and lose socialization skills. Another negative side of Millennials is what so called by “bow culture”. Bow culture is a habit developed by Millennials because of technological developments especially smartphones, which is they walk around while staring their smartphone and do not care with the surroundings. This habit must be eliminated by implementing that paradigm.

     Another effect of implementation of this thinking framework, they will developed an easy, right on target, and best solution to any kind of problems. Creative thinking will lead engineers to innovation-based thinking. There is an easy way to accustom creative thinking mindset, which is trained yourself to think or produce one new idea every day, guaranteed that on the first day everyone will have no new idea. However, if it is practiced every day, brand new ideas will streamed [14]. 

     Second, Leadership 4.0 also maximized the utilization of new technologies, such as the internet and computers. The use of technology maximized the needs to stay connected, for both fellow engineers and communication to the factory floor (directly to the machines). There is one precautions regarding utilization of internet. Engineers demanded to be an open and honest person, because everything that engineer put on the internet, will stay there forever and careful for “screenshots”, the power of screenshots as powerful as sayings.

     Third, the terms Leadership definitely related on how to manage team members and making plans. Millennials engineers needs to have a strategic planning every time they have some sort of projects or work. Nothing could goes well without good planning. Therefore, engineers needs strategic planning skills in order to achieve their goals. This strategic planning needs to be detailed, to make it easier to execute. By implementing strategic planning, millennials engineers can pinpoint the goals of themselves or the company. After pinpointing the goals, engineers can determined the path from where he/she were to where was their goal.

     Fourth, correlate with the third point, in order to manage team members, millennials engineers need to master engaging communication skills. What is meant by engaging communication skill are to talk with your Head, Heart, and Hand. In order to do engaging communication, engineers needed to fill his/her Head (Brain) with knowledge that is very broad, profound, and detailed. Engineers always talks with real data, in order to get real and true data, engineers need his/her head full of knowledge. And make it a habit to do a crosscheck when receiving an information, to make sure that information received is true and not some sort of hoax.

     Heart, the greatest problems for millennials engineers. Nowadays, many millennials engineers are very intelligent, but their hearts empty. I.e. most intelligent people / engineers has a brilliant mind, but cannot convey his/her idea or thoughts correctly. Millennials engineers nowadays also has difficulties to “read” someone else state of emotion, so that often they caught a fight because of communication problem (miscommunication). Lack of spiritual skills also leading human become evil. I.e. back to the Second World War, intelligent engineers in Nazi Germany creates a war machines that killed thousands of thousands innocent human being. That is the example of intelligent human being without proper spiritual skills / heart. Engineers can built anything, from a simple light bulb until a spacecraft but if he/she does not taking heart into consideration, it will be very dangerous.

     Hand, engineers must be able to make dreams comes true. I.e. video calling in the 1980-s only can be seen in the Science Fiction movie; nowadays it is common to do video calling via smartphones. If an engineer only had a great mind, but no skills in his/her hand, that engineer is a dreamer. Nevertheless, you cannot make something without proper and enough knowledge in your brain. In addition, it must be balanced with a holistic heart.

C. Values 4.0

     As a human being, engineers needs to hold to some kind of values to maintain theirs sense of humanity. Technical skills and management skills will be useless if these engineers cannot utilize their skills in a proper way. These values 4.0 encompass Spiritual Quotient too; this is due to our values as a human related to our inner core (our spirit). Technology developed by Industry 4.0 has eroded the existence of the values in human heart, especially millennials engineers. When these values are lost, human lost their sense of humanity. The problem is, millennials nowadays tend to forget, neglect, and not applying these values anymore with a reason “old fashioned”.  

     However, when young generations / millennials neglect values, there is no point of learning science. Engineer exist in this world to make it the better place for human by developing a technology to improve human welfare; therefore, every engineering innovation must base on human needs (human-centric). Although values may differ depending on cultural culture, these following values are the universal value needed by Millennials Engineers in the future to help them boost their career.

     As great professionals, engineers expected to have these values [7, 14, 17]:

  • Integrity, Care, and Excellence (ICE)

Integrity discuss about value of being. Integrity is a quality that encourages someone to be honest, live a moral life, and is reliable / trustworthy, where his/her words and deeds are a wholeness anytime and when with anyone.

Care, the value of connecting with others. Caring is a seriousness of heart and its action that is born from deep love in order to maintain a continuous relationship and prevent damage to the relationship.

Excellence, the value of working. Prime, is a quality of self-quality to achieve the best and exceptional (good/distinguish) results through perseverance, authentic attitude, and dynamic standards. 

  • Walk the Talk

This value related with Integrity. As an Engineer, we must deliver what we have promised or said. By neglecting this value, our credibility or reputation will suffered, since this value closely related to trustworthy. Engineers expected to be a role model, so engineers must have this kind of value in his/her entire life.

  • Straight Forward / Talk Straight

Millennials nowadays has tons of activity during his daily life, that time becomes very important. Most of millennials engineers nowadays registered as a member of a gym, making sure that their body shaped and fit. However, they need to work as well and hate long and unnecessary chitchat while doing a conversation, dissimilar with previous generations that love to do a chitchat. Industry 4.0 also implement of a fast-paced systems, so millennials engineers needed every second they got. Therefore, millennials engineers needs to talk straight to the main point to be conveyed.

  • Effective and Open

Since the industry has implemented fast-paced systems, but millennials has tons of work and limited time, they need to work effectively. While working effectively, they need to be flexible and open to new kind of changes, i.e. technological updates, new kind of challenge, etc. Working effectively and efficient, will increase productivity and help boost engineer’s career.

  • Challenge Yourself

As millennials engineers, we should not feared of challenges. Engineers should constantly pushing the boundaries of science, technology, and themselves. Industrial environment in the future will increase the bar of standards, and we need to position ourselves as an engineer in the front of the demand curve. So that when demand is high for that particular demand, we are ready to supply it with our expertise.

  • Passionate About Your Job

Some old sayings said that “Find a job you love as it is your hobby”. When an engineer love his/her job, he/she will do the work happily and when a challenge or problem emerged, he/she will find the solution easily and happily. Moreover, when someone loved their job, they will work harder for it. At least, when engineers have passion while working their job, he/she will have a very strong motivation to survive while facing up some problems.

Values connected one engineer with others, because human is a social being. It also binds technical skills with management and entrepreneur skills. A human needs other humans in their life. Quoted from Emirsyah Satar, former CEO of Garuda Indonesia Group, as a leader in a company we need to encourage our employees / team with a motto “One Team, One Spirit, One Goal” [7, 18]. To bring a company or nation to the next level (for personal scope is developing career), it has to be a team effort.

There is no superman or super group or super profession that could bring a company to the next level, it has to be a teamwork / team effort. In order to do a great teamwork, engineers with other employees and top management must act as one big team, with one the same spirit / value as the main driving motivation, and marching together to same destination / goal. In order to do a great teamwork, engineers must equipped themselves with those skills and values. Remember, engineers of the future needed to be a team players, team builders, and role models.

Those values needs to be schooled and mastered along with implemented in real life condition by millennials engineers. This is important to be done because in the future, human-machine team will dominate the production floor in the industry [16, 21]. Another reason is noticing the negative impact of Industry 4.0 for millennials engineers only can be counterbalance if millennials hold on into these values and undergo these values in life.


IV. conclusions

Along with the emergence of Industry 4.0 and Millennials Engineers, classification of skills needed for career development needs to evolve. Hard and Soft Skills replaced by Technical Skills and Management and Entrepreneur Skills. This paper utilized social approach analysis for developing Management and Entrepreneur Skills.

For Technical Skills, Millennials Engineers in the future will not find any problems for adjusting and learning also implementing it because they learnt about those skills in the University. As for Management and Entrepreneur Skills, Millennials Engineers needed to be schooled and trained furthermore. Technical Skills and Management and Entrepreneur Skills must be equipped with Values 4.0 so that Engineers in the future still have a sense of humanity. Values 4.0 must be implanted deep into each millennials engineers heart in order to decrease negative effect of Industry 4.0 and bad habit of millennials engineers themselves.

Further education models needs to be adjusted to educate future millennials engineers to fill in the gap of skilled engineers of the future. These transformation of needed skills for career development is important because unique characteristics both Industry 4.0 and Millennials Engineers. These two groups has their own negative effect that needed to be counterbalance using necessary skills. A new term of skills also introduced in this paper, namely Digital Skills to complement the technical skills and management and entrepreneur skills.

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